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What dental handpiece parts should you know?

Electric handpiece control units
Most electric handpieces can be retrofitted to existing units in treatment areas. After connection to air and water lines, the electric motor control box is mounted to the delivery unit or placed on the bracket tray. Wired or wireless control display units are available for placement in a convenient location for the operator. The handpiece can be operated by the existing foot control. The motor speed is easily adjusted to provide precise control of the rotation of the bur for a specific procedure.

Attachments
Among attachments for electric motors, most of the head sizes are the same. Most procedures can be done with two attachment heads. Typical high-speed ranges are 1,000 to 200,000 rpm, and lowspeed ranges are 100 to 40,000 rpm. Ultra low-speed handpiece attachments allow endodontic procedures, some with torque control and auto reverse.

Motors
Many electric motors utilize small carbon brushes in the gear systems. Over time, the carbon brushes rub against the rotors leaving carbon dust that needs to be cleaned and brushes that require replacement. Many of the new motors are brushless, reducing the amount of maintenance needed. While most attachments have two gears, some provide three gears to better distribute the load. This feature reduces the wear on the bearings, resulting in less failure over time.

Concentric cutting
Constant torque and stabilization of the bur allow a concentric motion as speed is maintained.
The gears of the electric handpiece lock in the bur in to prevent wobble of the bur that is often experienced when using an air-driven handpiece. The sweeping motion used with an air-driven handpiece can result in irregularities at the margin of a preparation; the motion of the electric handpiece can produce a more smooth, even margin.

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Related article:
How to maximize the role of the intraoral camera?

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